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Looking for something different in the aquarium hobby? Then a brackish water aquarium may just be the endeavor for you. They are usually conversation pieces and allow your aquarium to be different than most others. They also, despite some myths, are easy to maintain since the fish from brackish waters are designed to withstand frequent salinity and water parameter changes unlike both fresh and saltwater fish. The following is a basic overview of how to set-up and maintain a tropical brackish aquarium.
The first step before any well planned aquarium is research. Take the time to research the different kinds of brackish fish. Brackish water fish have varying requirements in water quality and current and thus need more planning than other tropical fish. By pre-planning you are better assured that the fish you choose will be in appropriate environments. Keeping up with fish information will help prevent undesirable losses.
Almost any size aquarium is suitable for brackish fish. However, the smaller the aquarium, the fewer the fish you can put in it. Due to the adult size of many brackish fish, bigger is better. A larger freshwater ecosystem can better handle the daily fluctuations in water quality than a small ecosystem, absorbing more toxins and reducing stress on the fish. Before buying your aquarium, take into account the adult size of the fish you are going to purchase and this general rule: one inch of fish body (not including fins) per two gallons of water in the brackish aquarium.
Setting Up Your Aquarium
The basic equipment for your brackish aquarium is as follows:
You will need good filtration, be it a hang on power filter, a canister filter, or a wet-dry system (for larger or heavily stocked tanks). Be sure there will be adequate bio-filtration to break down fish wastes. Check with one of our knowledgeable staff members, as these types vary with the size of aquarium and fish desired. Substrate or gravel for the brackish aquarium should be sand. This can be any saltwater aragonite sand or even children’s play sand. A heater is required, set your temperature between 76 and 80 degrees. Lighting is another requirement, but how much you will need varies. If you are only keeping fish, (no live plants) a simple fluorescent bulb fixture will suffice. Your fish would do just fine without the light but for your viewing pleasure a timed day of no more than 10 hours will do. If you find that you are having an algae problem in the aquarium, reduce the hours the lighting is on. If you are interested in growing live plants more intense lighting is required. Please see a salesperson for suggestions for your personal lighting needs. Be sure to have test kits on hand to monitor your water chemistry. Test the water in your new aquarium at least twice a week for pH, Ammonia, Nitrite, and Nitrate. Carbonate Hardness is also a good test to have available. pH levels in a brackish aquarium vary depending on the type of habitat, falling between 7.5 and 8.5. Salt mixes are available in several brand names. Be sure to use marine salt mixes, and not freshwater salt, brackish fish need the minerals in marine salt. Mix your salt directly in the aquarium when first setting up. Check the salinity with a hydrometer. Salinity (or specific gravity) requirements vary with the fish you choose be sure you know these requirements when mixing your saltwater. Many brackish estuary fish will require slow increases in salinity as they grow to adults, eventually reaching full marine salinity. Most brackish fish, like puffers, datnoids, mollies and gobies, however, do well on 2 tablespoons of salt per gallon of water.
Fish can be added about three days after setting up your aquarium. This time allows all the salt to mix, and temperature and pH stabilize. To get started, you need to begin with starter fish. The cycling process is very stressful for most fish so we recommend hearty starters. For brackish tanks these are black mollies. Cycling is the process where a nitrifying bacteria colonizes in your filter and gravel. This bacteria’s job is to detoxify the wastes created by your fish. You will notice that within the first few weeks by testing your water, ammonia and nitrite levels will rise in the tank and slowly decrease. Also during this time you may see the water in the aquarium start to cloud or look grey. Do not worry, this is natural, the cloudiness will pass quickly on its own, or you can add a bacteria supplement such as ‘Stress Zyme’ or ‘Cycle’ to help lower ammonia levers and aid in the cycle. While your aquarium is cycling do not change any water, clean out your filter media or add more fish. Your tank will be completely cycled when ammonia and nitrite both test at zero and nitrate tests low. This can take anywhere from 3 to 8 weeks. The key here is to BE PATIENT. When your aquarium is cycled, add new fish gradually. Adding too many fish at once can disrupt your cycle and increase the possibility of fish illness. Be sure to follow recommended acclimating procedures to ensure a happy addition. Once cycled, basic aquarium maintenance includes feeding, cleaning, and water changes. When your purchase your new fish, find out what food is best and how often they should be fed. Brackish foods are available in dried and frozen varieties and each type of fish has different needs. Cleaning includes scraping aquarium walls to keep them free of algae and stirring the sand on a regular basis. Water changes are the biggest part of aquarium maintenance. Never change more than 25% of the aquarium water at one time. Changing too much can do much more harm than good. Normal water changes should be done approximately every 14 to 18 days. This keeps nitrate levels low and ensures healthy fish. Always pre-mix your brackish water in a container before adding it back into the aquarium and make sure the temperature and specific gravity is equal to that already in the aquarium.